Experts in taxation, trade and impact evaluation

ECOPA provides consulting services in sectors with a compelling need for rigorous analysis of policies and strategies. In taxation, trade and impact evaluation, we combine a command of modern quantitative techniques with extensive field experience.

Our clients

Combining data-based economic analysis with policy experience


Excessive tax burdens, especially if combined with a complex regulatory system and poorly coordinated institutions, make taxation inefficient, inequitable and ultimately unable to raise sufficient revenue

ECOPA helps tax administrations and funding agencies improve the attractiveness of tax systems and enhance revenue mobilization. 

ECOPA’s expertise in tax analytics includes econometric modeling and micro simulations for tax policy assessment. ECOPA also advises tax authorities on compliance and risk-based audit strategies.  


ECOPA has developed specialized expertise in trade analytics. Its approach, combining state-of-the-art modelling techniques with strong field experience, generates robust and well-researched recommendations on trade-related decisions. 

ECOPA’s projects have involved the deployment of large-scale computable general and partial equilibrium models to assess the impact of regional and bilateral trade agreements. 

Impact evaluation

To evaluate the impact of programs and policies in taxation and private sector development, ECOPA implements econometric methods to generate counterfactual scenarios and compare them with observed outcomes.

These tools are combined with qualitative techniques (case studies, focus groups) to provide balanced evaluations with practical lessons on policy and program design.

ECOPA is a member of the Economisti Associati-led consortium for impact assessments of the European Union’s internal tax and customs policies, for the European Commission’s DG TAXUD.

Consulting projects

  • All
  • Impact evaluation
  • Investment climate
  • Taxation
  • Trade

An impact evaluation of IFC investment climate program in Mali

ECOPA has been selected by IFC to evaluate its assistance program for investment climate reforms in Mali. This evaluation includes an analysis of the impact of the war (2012-2014) on the economy, using the Synthetic Control Method. For IFC (2019).

Impact evaluation of the EU Directive on Administrative Cooperation

ECOPA is participating in the impact evaluation of the EU Directive on Administrative Cooperation (DAC), covering, inter alia, automated exchanges of information against tax evasion and BEPS (with Economisti Associati, for the European Commission, DG TAXUD, 2018-on-going).

Impact evaluation of SECO program in Africa, for IFC

ECOPA implements an impact assessment of the SECO (Swiss cooperation) investment climate program in Africa, for IFC. For IFC (2018).

Impact evaluation of fiscal reforms in Ethiopia

In association with Economisti Associati, ECOPA is implementing Synthetic Control Method techniques to assess the impact of tax and customs reforms in Ethiopia. For the World Bank (2018).

Taxation Analysis in Togo and Benin

Government revenue mobilization remains a major development challenge in sub-Saharan Africa. ECOPA is commissioned by the World Bank with analyzing taxation in Togo and Benin with the aim of producing reform options. The intervention includes the following components: Analysis of trends and composition of revenues (by tax and by industry), and estimation of revenue elasticity […]

Measuring tax evasion of individuals in the European Union

For the European Commission (DG TAXUD), in collaboration with Economisti Associati and Case, ECOPA is leading a study on the assets held by individuals in tax havens and the corresponding foregone taxes for the EU member states. Global and country macroeconomic data, as well as data from recent leaks (Panana Paper, Paradise Papers, etc.), are […]

Tax Incentive Analysis in Cape Verde

ECOPA has been commissioned by the World Bank to analyze Cape Verde’s tax incentive system. This project includes the calculation of Marginal Effective Tax Rates by industry and tax regime, as well as an estimate of the fiscal cost of the incentives. A methodology for appraising the cost-benefit balance of incentives is also developed. For […]

An Impact Assessment of OHADA Reforms

In association with Economisti Associati, ECOPA led an impact assessment of OHADA investment climate reforms. This includes the use of the Synthetic Control Method for isolating the impact of the program on key impact indicators such as job creation, investment and business registration. The final report is available here. For IFC / World Bank (2017).

Corporate income tax simulations in Indonesia

ECOPA was commissioned by the World Bank to build a micro simulation model for CIT analysis in Indonesia. Working closely with the tax administration, ECOPA is building a micro level database with optimal sampling, including incentives, tax holidays and preferential rates. The objective of the project is to project the revenue impact of a set […]

Framework Contract TAXUD/2015/CC/132 – For the provision of evaluation and impact assessment-related services

For the European Commission’s DG TAXUD, ECOPA is a member of the consortium led by Economisti Associati for evaluations and impact assessment of the European Union’s tax and customs programs and policies. This contract covers tax policies such as the review of the excise duty structure of alcoholic beverages, fiscal marking of gas oil and kerosene, and […]

Tax Risk Based Assessment IT Tool for Audits – Yemen Tax Authority

Based on the initial assessments carried out in earlier diagnostics, updated risk parameters, and data provided by the Large Taxpayers Department at Yemen Tax Authority, ECOPA in association with Apex Consulting, developed a risk based assessment IT tool to manage and score taxpayer based on risk characteristics and produce better audit strategies and identify high […]

Tax policy analysis in Guinea Bissau and Senegal

These two tax policy assignments included tax efficiency/equity analysis and micro-level econometric modelling.  In Guinea Bissau, ECOPA carried out: A review of the cashew sector taxation, with emphasis on tax incidence and impact on poverty (cashew being the main export crop of the country); Orientations for pro-poor taxation and competition policy in the sector. In […]

Tax Expenditure Analysis in Georgia

ECOPA implemented an analysis of tax expenditures based on a micro simulation model, including: A comprehensive inventory of tax incentives and a measurement of their revenue cost; Training and reporting on findings, methodology and policy recommendations on the country’s tax incentive system. For the World Bank (2014).

Guidelines for preparation of costs and benefits assessments of investment projects in Morocco

ECOPA carried out a review of the investment climate with a focus on business registration and investment incentives. This included the preparation of a manual for costs and benefits assessments of investment projects submitted to the National Investment Commission. Activities included: A cost/benefit analysis of the portfolio of approved investment projects, where costs were the […]

Net fiscal impact of the Economic Partnership Agreement with the European Union (Central Africa)

For TradeCom (a EU agency) and the Central African region, ECOPA developed a set of economic models to evaluate the net fiscal impact of the Economic Partnership Agreement with the European Union in the eight countries of the Central African region (Congo Brazzaville, DRC, São Tomé & Principe, Gabon, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Chad and Central […]

Promoting a favorable fiscal environment for micro, small and medium enterprises (MSME) in Senegal

In two successive missions, ECOPA was commissioned by the ILO in Senegal to review the investment climate of Micro and Small Enterprises (MSMEs) on (i) business taxation and (ii) business registration (including management of the Registre du Commerce et du Crédit Mobilier). Recommendations were produced on tax regime simplification for SMEs and RCCM improvements. For the […]

Improving micro-enterprise taxation in the OHADA region

ECOPA was commissioned by IFC to review the implementation of OHADA’s “Entreprenant” regime. The assignment included a review of the current implementation status of the regime, with in-depth case studies on 3 countries. The analysis covered three major issues: Business Registration, Access to Finance and Taxation, with recommendations on each of these aspects, with the […]

SME development in Haiti

ECOPA assisted the ILO in designing an assistance program for SME development in Haiti. This project covered the analysis of the institutional and regulatory framework in the specific context of the aftermath of the January 2010 earthquake. Special attention was paid to employment and revenue generation in micro enterprises, particularly in the construction sector — […]

Cost-benefit analysis of investment incentives in Tunisia

ECOPA carried out the preparation and analysis of an exhaustive micro database on tax and financial investment incentives and related employment & investment over the last 10 years. Macro-level data on impact indicators (employment and investments) was mapped with micro-level data from a survey data from 139 Tunisian SMEs to provide a cost-benefit analysis for […]

Development of new guidelines for monitoring and evaluation in conflict affected countries

The project is based on the five detailed case studies (Tajikistan, South Sudan, Nepal, DRC, West Bank,) to test and develop practical M&E recommendations and tools for IFC projects in conflict-affected countries or regions, including how to measure ‘soft outcome’, conflict-related additionality, address the do-no-harm question and provide concrete guidance on data collection. The case […]

Marginal Effective Tax Rates in the WAEMU zone

ECOPA calculated the Marginal Effective Tax Rate (METR) for the eight countries of the WAEMU zone, and for each tax regime. The METR is a synthetic indicator of the aggregate tax burden on firms and takes into account all tax instruments (tax on profits, property tax, indirect taxes and customs duties on inputs and investments, […]

Development of a trade data base in Sudan

ECOPA undertook this one-person assignment that is part of a broader project aiming at strengthening the Sudan national capacity for EPA negotiations and for EPA implementation and monitoring. The assignment included: (i) Assessing and recording the current availability and quality of trade data (goods and services) in Sudan; (ii) Assessing the level of competence and […]

Study on the Implementation of the MSG Trade Agreement and Roadmap for Future Regional Integration

ECOPA assisted the member states of the Melanesian Spearhead Group (MSG) in deciding the future direction of the MSG Trade Agreement (MSGTA). The specific objectives of the study were to: (i) assess the implementation of the current MSGTA, its impact on trade and economic performance in MSG countries with a view to improving its performance; […]

Technical Assistance to support Pacific ACP States to prepare their trade in goods market access offers for the purpose of EPA negotiations

The overall objective of this project was to assist the 7 countries of the Pacific Island Forum in preparing their EPA trade in goods offers. For this project, ECOPA developed an EPA Data Tool (based on a partial equilibrium model) to analyze and formulate EPA offers. The Data Tool was built upon trade flows and […]

Reform of the Investment Code in Mali

  ECOPA evaluated the Mali Investment Code for the Ministry of Finance, including the associated tax expenditure. The intervention included an analysis of the legal framework and associated procedures vis-à-vis international best practices. The fiscal attractiveness of the incentive schemes provided for by the Code was analyzed by calculating the Effective Marginal Tax Rates, with […]

Study of the impact of the Economic Partnership Agreement on the Congolese economy

ECOPA led this three-person EC-funded assignment on the quantitative evaluation of the impact of the Economic Partnership Agreement (a Free Trade Agreement between the EU and Central Africa) in Congo. The study used a macroeconomic dynamic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model of the economy of Congo, including a detailed external trade module. The model provided […]

Business taxation and tax incentives: analysis and recommendations for reforms

ECOPA led this two-person assignment on the analysis of the business taxation and tax incentives in DRC. The analysis included a partial equilibrium model of the Marginal Effective Tax Rate, which was used to evaluate the fiscal burden faced by businesses, including small businesses. The analysis stated the opacity of the fiscal system and the […]

Study of the impact of the Economic Partnership Agreement on customs revenue and domestic taxation

ECOPA has led this three-person EC-funded assignment on the quantitative evaluation of the impact of the Economic Partnership Agreement (a Free Trade Agreement between the EU and ECOWAS) in Mali. The study used a macroeconomic dynamic Computable General Equilibrium model of the Malian economy, including a detailed external trade module. The model provided an evaluation […]

Study of the benefits and disadvantages of STP’s accession to CEMAC

ECOPA led this evaluation of STP’s accession to the Monetary and Economic Community of Central Africa (CEMAC), including the impact of the Economic Partnership Association (EPA) between CEMAC and the EU and the accession to the CFA monetary zone. The study provides accompanying measures to support the regional integration process and includes a macroeconomic dynamic […]

Study of the impact of the Economic Partnership Agreement on customs revenue and domestic taxation

ECOPA led this 3-person EC-funded assignment on the quantitative evaluation of the impact of the Economic Partnership Agreement (a Free Trade Agreement between the EU and Central Africa) in Cameroon. The study relied on a macroeconomic dynamic Computable General Equilibrium model of the economy of Cameroon, including a detailed external trade module. The model provided […]

National Strategy for the Development of the Industrial Sector

ECOPA led this 7-person World Bank-funded assignment on the development of an Industrial Strategy for Cape Verde. The analysis covered: (i) human capital and technological attainment; (ii) subsectoral competitive advantages in agro-industry, textile and clothing, leather and building materials and potential for inclusion into global value chains and attraction of foreign investment in those sectors; […]